The Republic of Ezo has the distinction of being one of the shortest lived countries. During the Boshin Civil War in Japan, a group of men led by Admiral Enomoto Takeaki escaped to the large, northern island of Japan, now known as Hokkaido.
In 1869 they established the Republic of Ezo, and in the first ever election in Japan, elected Enomoto Takeaki as president. Five months later, the new President was forced to surrender and the Republic of Ezo was subsumed back under Japanese rule.
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“Japan at War: An Encyclopedia”, edited by Louis G. Perez
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Published by 東洋文化協會 (The Eastern Culture Association) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons