The rubber party balloon was first invented by the English scientist Michael Faraday. In his experiments with gases in 1824, Faraday affixed two pieces of rubber together and inflated it.
His discovery was quickly noticed and rubber balloons were already being marketed to the public the following year. Faraday’s invention was simply an improvement on an ancient idea: balloons had been used as far back as the time of the Aztecs, who inflated animal intestines, twisted them into various shapes, and burnt them as sacrifices.
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By Photographs by Radosław Drożdżewski (User:Zwiadowca21) (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons