The Comeback of the Dardanelles Gun

In 1464, an Ottoman emperor asked his engineers to create a huge cannon. The Dardanelles Gun, as it would become known, was cast in bronze and weighted almost 17 tons (37,000 lbs). It had a length of 5.18m (17ft) and a diameter of 1m (3.2ft).

The Caesar Cipher

Rome’s legendary dictator Julius Caesar (100BC-44BC) had many enemies. To protect himself and his plans, Caesar started using a cipher. By coding each of his personal letters with a simple system: With help of the alphabet, he would write a letter and then shift it 3 times to the right.

War elephants vs cannons

In 1520s, North India is in turmoil. Babur (1483-1530) was a conqueror from Central Asia, who planned on expanding his empire. In 1526, Babur’s forces encountered the army Ibrahim Lodi, the Sultan of Delhi. The site was the city of Panipat, which is 90km north of Delhi.

A hero in the Rwandan Genocide

Mbaye Diagne (1958 – 1994) was a military officer from Senegal. During the 1994 Rwandan genocide around 500,000 people were slaughtered in just 3 months.