Stanisław II August (1732-1798) was the last King and Grand Duke of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1764–95). Born into a Polish noble family he received a great education and traveled all over Europe. In 1756, he visited St. Petersburg, Russia and met the future Russian Empress Yekaterina Alexeyevna (later known as Catherine the Great).
Vasili Alexandrovich Arkhipov (1926-1998) was a Soviet navy officer. It was October 1962. The Cuban Missile Crisis was likely to escalate into a full out nuclear war between the US and the Soviet Union.
Leonid Rogozov (1934-2000) was a Russian general practitioner who participated in a Soviet expedition in Antarctica in 1960. In April of 1961, he began to feel unwell and eventually came to the conclusion that he had an inflammation in his appendix.