Approximately between 650 and 1048, the Eastern European region between and around the Black Sea and Caspian Sea was home to a powerful empire called Khazaria.
Largely forgotten now, it was home to more than 1.4 million people, was supposedly ruled by a Jewish elite, but had a very tolerant attitude towards other religions. Whether the most popular religion was Judaism or not has recently come under dispute. However, there were kings with well known Judeo-Christian names such as David, Aaron, Benjamin and Joseph. Khazaria’s importance was also due to its strategic location. It controlled many important trading routes between Asia and Europe.
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By Gabagool (Own work) [CC BY 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons