Bertold Wiesner (1901-1972) was a successful Austrian physiologist, who studied pregnancy and fertility. He was among the first who figured out how to create urine-based pregnancy tests and also assess risks of birth defects.
In addition to these studies, he and his wife also were among the first worldwide to artificially inseminate women. Due to a lack of sperm banks at the time, Wiesner was the sole sperm donor. Operating in a legal grey area (it was not illegal, but also not legal), they told the mothers to keep quiet about it. It is estimated that he fathered some 600 children, but the number could be as high as 1000.
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By Unknown author [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons