Towazugatari, or “The Unasked-For Tale” is commonly translated from Japanese as “The Confessions of Lady Nijō.” This autobiographical work, written by a concubine of the Japanese Emperor Go-Fukakusa, has great historical significance as it offers a unique peek into the Japanese imperial court.
Married to the Mongolian Manduul Khan at the age of 18, Mandukhai was widowed soon after, when her husband was poisoned in 1479. In the midst of the resulting instability, she found one of the great Genghis Khan’s descendants, a young boy who had been hidden away for his own safety.
Brain surgery is thought to have been performed as early as 6500 B.C. Known as trephination, the surgery involved drilling a hole in the skull and often removing a piece of the skull. Trephination was performed all over the world, including France, China, the Incan, Mayan, and Aztec Empires, Rome, and Greece.